Posts Tagged ‘SQL Server Hardening’

Hi Guys, Now days Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (PCI DSS) is a preventative standard intended to reduce the risk of payment card fraud and information theft. As per my views after SQL server installation on Production Box, I hope below settings should be set using SP_CONFIGURE as,

  • The ‘Ad Hoc Distributed Queries’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’
  • The ‘CLR Enabled’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’
  • The ‘Cross DB Ownership Chaining’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’
  • The ‘Database Mail XPs’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’.
  • The ‘Ole Automation Procedures’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’
  • The ‘Remote Access’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’
  • The ‘Remote Admin Connections’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’.
  • The ‘Scan For Startup Procs’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’.
  • The ‘SQL Mail XPs’ Server Configuration Option should be set to ‘0’
  • The ‘Trustworthy’ Database Property should be set to Off
  • Unnecessary SQL Server Protocols should be disabled.
  • SQL Server should be configured to use non-standard ports
  • The ‘Hide Instance’ option should be set to ‘Yes’ for production SQL Server instances.
  • Non-clustered SQL Server instances within production environments should be

    designated as hidden to prevent advertisement by the SQL Server Browser service.

  • The ‘sa’ login account should be disabled or renamed.

Extended Stored Procedures

The following extended stored procedures should not be used by any application or maintenance script.

  • Execute on ‘xp_availablemedia’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • The ‘xp_cmdshell’ option should be set to disabled
  • Execute on ‘xp_dirtree’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_enumgroups’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_fixeddrives’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_servicecontrol’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_subdirs’ set to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_regaddmultistring’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_regdeletekey’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_regdeletevalue’ to PUBLIC should be revoked
  • Execute on ‘xp_regenumvalues’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.
  • Execute on ‘xp_regremovemultistring’ to PUBLIC should be revoked
  • Execute on ‘xp_regwrite’ to PUBLIC should be revoked
  • Execute on ‘xp_regread’ to PUBLIC should be revoked.

Authentication and Authorization

  • The ‘Server Authentication’ Property should be set to Windows Authentication mode
  • CONNECT permissions on the ‘guest user’ should be revoked within all SQL Server databases excluding the master, msdb and tempdb
  • Orphaned Users should be dropped from SQL Server database. A database user for which the corresponding SQL Server login is undefined or is incorrectly defined on a server instance cannot log in to the instance and is referred to as orphaned and should be removed.

Password Policies

  • The ‘MUST_CHANGE’ Option should be set to ‘ON’ for all SQL authenticated logins
  • The ‘CHECK_EXPIRATION’ Option should be set to ‘ON’ for all SQL authenticated logins within the ‘Sysadmin’ Role
  • The ‘CHECK_POLICY’ Option should be set to ‘ON’ for all SQL authenticated logins

  • Auditing and Logging
  • The ‘Maximum number of error log files’ setting should be set to greater than or equal to 12.
  • The ‘Default Trace Enabled’ Server Configuration option should be set to 1.
  • ‘Login Auditing’ to both failed and successful logins

 

Thanks for Reading, Keep smiling, keep learning

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Hi, As DBA, its many time we have to faced Questions from Auditors or Clients where your SQL Server follow SQL Server Hardening best practices?, Here are some few as,

  • During installation, Install only required components, When the SQL Server installation is complete, harden the SQL Server environment.
  • After the installation, use the SQL Server Configuration Manager tool in order to disable unnecessary features and services.
  • Install the most recent critical fixes and service packs for both Windows and SQL Server.
  • When you’re selecting authentication modes, Windows Authentication is a more secure choice
  • If there is still a need to use SQL Authentication – enforce strong password policy.
  • Do not use the SA account for day-to-day administration, logging on to the server remotely, or having applications use it to connect to SQL. It is best if the SA account is disabled and renamed.
  • Create a role-based security policy with the Security Configuration Wizard tool.
  • Create policies with Policy Based Management enable/ disable unnecessary features and services.
  • After the server has been hardened, periodically asses the server’s security using the MBSA (Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer) and SQL Server BPA (Best Practices Analyzer).
  • For production SQL Servers running mission-critical databases, either hide the instance or disable the SQL Server Browser service.
  • Change the default ports associated with the SQL Server installation to put off hackers from port-scanning the server.
  • Enable a firewall to filter unnecessary and unknown traffic.
  • At the very least, set security auditing to failed login attempts; otherwise, both failed and successful logins should be captured and monitored.
  • If upgrading previous versions of SQL Server, remove the BUILTIN/Administrators group from the SQL Server Logins.
  • Use the IIS Lockdown and URL Scan tools to harden IIS.